Honolulu and a wow. Honolulu) is a city on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, Hawaii State and Honolulu County. In Hawaiian, honolulu means "protected bay".
|English and a wow. Honolulu|
|21°18'32″ pp. 157°49'34″ h.d.|
|Status|| State administrative center; |
district administrative center
|History and geography|
|Center Height||6 m|
|Population||390,738 people (2010)|
|Population of agglomeration||953 207|
|Phone code||+1 808|
|Media files on Wikimedia Commons|
In the suburb of Honolulu, the main base of U.S. naval forces in the central Pacific, Pearl Harbor, is located.
Archeological evidence and some oral stories indicate that the first Polynesian settlement originated in the territory of modern Honolulu in the XI century. Having won the island of Oahu, King Kameamea I transferred the royal court from Hawaii to Waikiki (now Honolulu district) in 1804. Its courtyard was moved again in 1809 to the place where the business center of the city is now located. In 1812 the capital was moved to Kailua-Kona.
In 1794, the British officer, William Brown, was the first European to go to the harbor of Honolulu. The Russians first appeared in this area during a round-the-world expedition of I. F. Kruzenstern and Yu. F. Lisyansky. Subsequently, the city becomes the focal point for merchant ships traveling between North America and Asia. The attempt in 1815-17 by Egor Sheffer to establish a Russian colony and bring the entire archipelago into Russian nationality, which at first was quite successful, was not supported by the Russian government.
In 1845, Cameamea III relocates the capital of the Kingdom of Hawaii from Lahaina on the island of Maui to Honolulu. With it, as well as under its successors, the city was transformed into a modern capital, and buildings such as St. Andrew's Cathedral, the palace of Yolani, Aliyolani Hale were erected (the Hawaii state supreme court is now located in the building). At the same time, the city is becoming an important trade hub on the islands; The descendants of American missionaries are building large enterprises in the center of Honolulu. In 1893, the Kingdom of Hawaii ceased to exist, and the islands became part of the United States in 1898. In 1900, a major fire broke out in the city, setting fire to most of the local Chinatown (about 15 hectares of land). The fire was caused by a campaign to burn contaminated houses in quarantine, announced in connection with the cases of bubonic plague. Due to the heavy construction of the Chinatown, the fire quickly spread to nearby buildings, leaving more than 7,000 people homeless. In December 1941, the Pearl Harbor naval base located in the city's outskirts was attacked by a Japanese aircraft carrier in the course of the Hawaii operation. During World War II, the city was one of the main supply centers for U.S. forces in Pacific theater.
The subsequent development of the city is connected with the tourism industry.
Geography and climate
Honolulu is located on the leeward side of Oahu Island, covering the entire area between the ocean and the Koolau Ridge, which is a part of the crater slope of a colossal volcano that has survived from ancient times.
According to the Köppen climate classification, the city is located in the tropical climate of the Savannah As. However, there is little rainfall due to the effect of the rainy shade from Koolau, and the wet and dry seasons are not clear and flow smoothly into each other. It is sunny in Honolulu almost all year round. During 12 months, temperature changes are slight; the average monthly maximum temperature is 27-32 °C, and the average monthly minimum temperature is 18-24 °C. Very rarely does the thermometer column rise to 35°C, and the minimum temperature at night can drop to 14-15°C no more than twice a year. The highest temperature of 35°C was recorded during the heat wave in September 1998. Later that day, the highest temperature in the state of Niihau was recorded. The lowest temperature reached 11.7 °C on 16 February 1902 and 20 January 1969. The coastal water temperature is 27°C during the summer months and 25°C during the winter.
Annually, the city receives an average of 434mm of rainfall, most of which occurs during the winter months from October to mid-April. In summer, there is little rainfall. On average, Honolulu has 278 sunny and 90 rainy days per year. Although it is believed that the city has a dry and rainy season, it is almost invisible because of the small rains in the summer and the intensification in the winter. However, both seasons have the same number of rainy days.
Although the city is tropical, hurricanes are considered rare. The last hurricane to hit Hawaii was recorded in 1992. Hurricane Iniki was ranked fourth. Tornado is also rare, and it usually hits the islands once every 15 years. Water-related tornadoes that occur near the coast are, to some extent, more common and strike the city every five years.
|Climate Honolulu (Normal 1981-2010)|
|Absolute maximum, °C||31.1||31.1||31.7||32.8||33.9||33.3||34.4||33.9||35.0||34.4||34.4||31.7||35.0|
|Average maximum, °C||26.7||26.8||27.3||28.2||29.2||30.6||31.1||31.5||31.4||30.4||28.8||27.3||29.1|
|Average temperature, °C||22.9||22.8||23.6||24.5||25.4||26.8||27.3||27.7||27.5||26.7||25.3||23.8||25.4|
|Medium minimum, °C||19.1||18.9||19.8||20.8||21.6||23.0||23.6||23.9||23.6||23.0||21.9||20.2||21.6|
|Absolute minimum, °C||11.7||11.7||12.8||13.3||15.6||18.3||18.9||18.3||18.9||16.1||13.9||12.2||11.7|
|Precipitation rate, mm||59||51||51||16||16||7||13||14||18||47||62||82||436|
|Water temperature, °C||22.5||23.0||24.2||23.5||24.8||26.4||27.0||27.5||28.0||26.6||25.8||25.5||25.4|
|Source: Weather and climate, Travel Portal|
In the city are located diplomatic missions (consulates) of the following states:
- Marshall Islands
- Federated States of Micronesia
- Republic of Korea
According to the 2010 census, the population of Honolulu was 390,738. Gender composition: Men - 49.3%; Women - 50.7%. The average age of urban residents is 41.3 years (40 years for men, 43 years for women). The proportion of persons over 65 years of age is 18.1%.
- white - 17.9% (in 1970 - 33.9%)
- black - 1.5%
- Asians - 54.8% (including Japanese - 19.9%, Filipinos - 13.2%, Chinese - 10.4%)
- Hawaiians and other Polynesians - 8.4% (including Hawaiians - 3.2%, Samoans - 1.5%)
- Hispanics - 5.4%
Thus, Honolulu is the state capital with the smallest proportion of whites and largest Asian populations in the US, and the only capital where Polynesians outnumber Blacks and Hispanics (combined).
The crime rate in the city is about 1/4 lower than the average in the USA, but slightly higher than in the Middle Away.
Population dynamics in Honolulu:
- 1,890 — 22,907
- 1,900 — 39,306 people
- 1910 — 52,183 people
- 1920 — 83,327 people.
- 1930 — 137,582 people
- 1940 — 179,326 people
- 1950 — 248,034 people
- 1960 — 294,194 people
- 1970 — 324,871 people
- 1980 — 365,048 people
- 1990 — 365,272 people
- 2000 — 371,657 people
- 2010 — 390,738 people.
At present, Honolulu is not only the largest city and airport in Hawaii, but also a recognized international tourist center. Millions of tourists enter the islands through Honolulu, bringing the urban economy up to $10 billion annually. Because of this favorable location in the Pacific, the city is an important business, trade, and transport hub connecting East and West. In addition, the Pearl Harbor naval base, as well as various research and production centers (mainly in the field of information technology, the creation of modern materials, medicine and biotechnology) play an important role in the city's economy.
Among the companies based in Honolulu are:
- Alexander & Baldwin
- Bank of Hawaii
- Central Pacific Bank
- First Hawaiian Bank
- Hawaii Medical Service Association
- Hawaii Pacific Health
- Hawaiian Electric Industries
- Matson Navigation Company
- The Queen's Health Systems
Go headquarters! Mokulele, Hawaiian Airlines, Island Air, and Aloha Air Cargo are all located in the city. Prior to the suspension, Aloha Airlines' main offices were located in Honolulu. For some time the local airline Mid-Pacific Airlines was based on the territory of Honolulu International Airport. In 2009, the cost and rental of housing in Honolulu increased by an average of 4.5%, since then the city ranked second in the real estate market among 210 American agglomerations.
Since Hawaii does not have branches of major national banking networks, tourists and locals use the services of various local banks. First Hawaiian Bank is the largest and oldest banking institution in Hawaii. The main office of the bank is located in the First Hawaiian Center, the highest building in the state.
The city is serviced by Honolulu International Airport (IATA: HNL, ICAO: PHNL), located 5 kilometers north-west of the business district, one of the busiest airports in the United States, with an annual passenger traffic of about 18 million people (data for 2011). The airport provides regular flights to all major cities in North America, several cities in Japan and Australia, as well as Manila, Shanghai, Taipei and Oakland. Three main directions: Tokyo, Los Angeles and Seoul. The airport also provides access to a large number of localities in Hawaii and Oceania in general.
Honolulu wears the sad title for the city's citizens of the leader in traffic jams among US cities, having in the late 2000s outpaced Los Angeles. On average, drivers spend 58 hours in traffic each year, especially the problem is roads leading to the western suburbs. In the early 2000s, plans were developed and implemented to build a 32-kilometer light rail line connecting the city center and the west, but due to lack of money and green protests, construction was continuously delayed. The current global crisis has called into question the end of the project, and the movement's opening has been postponed from 2015 to 2019. Formally, Honolulu is part of a system of interstate highways in the USA, passing Interstate H-1 and Interstate H-201. In practice, it is understandably impossible to travel these roads to another state.
Public transport is represented by 110 bus routes managed by TheBus. On two occasions, in 1995 and 2001, the Honolulu Public Transportation Association (American Public Transportation Association) recognized the best in the country.
Natural History Museums
The main museum in Honolulu, the Bishop Museum, houses the largest collection of paleontological specimens in the state. The museum features the world's largest collection of artifacts related to Hawaiian and Polynesian culture. Honolulu Zoo is the main zoological institution in Hawaii and Waikiki Aquarium is the active laboratory for the study of ocean biology. The laboratory works closely with Hawaii University and other universities around the world. In Honolulu's botanical gardens: Foster Botanical Garden, Liliʻuokalani Botanical Garden and Walker Estate are engaged in the cultivation of plants from different parts of the world.
Established in 1900, the Honolulu Symphony Orchestra is the oldest symphony orchestra in the United States to the west of the Rocky Mountains. Other groups performing classical works include Hawaii Opera Theatre. Honolulu is also considered the center of traditional Hawaiian music. The main concert venues of the city are Hawaii Theatre, Waikiki Shell, Neal Blaisdell Center multifunctional complex with a concert hall and a platform for various sports and mass events. There are several art theaters in Honolulu, the most famous of which is the Diamond Head Theatre.
In Honolulu there are institutions where you can get acquainted with various works of art. The Honolulu Art Museum features the largest collection of Western and Asian art in Hawaii. The Changri La Manor houses the largest collection of Islamic art. The museum has a cinema named after the famous American, collector and philanthropist Doris Duke.
It hosts screenings of masterpieces of world cinematography, as well as films and video works by art house filmmakers.
The Museum of Modern Art presents the state's only collection of modern art. The exhibition is located in two places: The main building of the museum is located in the Makiki area and the multi-level gallery is located in the center of Honolulu, in the building First Hawaiian Center.
The Hawaii State Art Museum (in the city center) collection contains works by local artists and traditional Hawaii art. The museum is managed by the Hawaii State Foundation for Culture and Art.
The Hawaiian International Film Festival (GIFF) takes place every year in Honolulu. Within the framework of the festival, the best films of directors of the Asia-Pacific region are shown. The festival, held in the style of "Meeting of the East and the West," is the biggest event of its kind in the United States.
The favorable climatic conditions of Honolulu are ideal for sports all year round. In 2004 Men's Fitness magazine awarded Honolulu the title of the most sports city in the USA. Honolulu is hosting three major highway racing competitions:
- Great Aloha Run is held every year on Presidential Day.
- Each year, the Honolulu marathon, which starts on the second Sunday of December, has about 20,000 participants, two-thirds of whom are Japanese.
- Honolulu Triathlon is an Olympic Triathlon distance and is organized by the USA Triathlon. Since 2004, the competitions have been held annually in May, although the city does not have a specially equipped track for the sprint distance.
The first competitions and the first Ironman Hawaii World Triathlon Championship were held in Honolulu in 1978.
Several spectacular sports are popular in Honolulu. The city has many fans of local teams competing in the U.S. football, volleyball, basketball, rugby, rugby, and baseball (under the Manoa Hawaiian University program). U.S. football competitions among high school teams are especially popular.
Honolulu has no professional teams of its own. In the past, the city has trained baseball teams - Hawaii Islanders (Pacific League, 1961-1987), American football - The Hawaiians (World League of American Football, 1974-1975), football - Team Hawaii (North American Football League, 1977) and mini-football Hawaiian Islanders (af2, 2002-2004).
The National Association of Student Sports is organizing a playoff series for the Hawaii Cup in Honolulu. Since 1980, the National Football League has played every Pro Bowl star in the city every February. Although the match was played in Miami in 2010, the 2011 match was played again in Honolulu. From 1993 to 2008, Honolulu hosted Hawaii Winter Baseball League matches, which included players from the lower leagues in the Main baseball league, Japan Professional baseball league, and the Professional baseball league South Korea and independent baseball leagues.
To visit games of spectacular sports in Honolulu you can:
- Les Murakami Stadium, which is located on the territory of Hawaii University in Manoa (baseball)
- Neal Blaisdell Center (basketball) Arena
- Stan Sheriff Center Arena, based at Manoa University of Hawaii (basketball and volleyball)
The Aloha Stadium, the venue for U.S. football matches, is outside Honolulu in the Halawa area.
- Crater of the extinct volcano Diamond Head
- Iolani Palace
- Waikiki Beach
- Kapiolani Park
- National Pacific Memorial Cemetery
- Hawaii Museum of Art
- Honolulu Academy of Arts
- Aloha Tower
- Azerbaijan : Baku
- Venezuela : Caracas
- Vietnam : Hue
- India : Mumbai
- Kenya : Mombasa
- China : Hainan, Zhongshan
- Portugal : Sintra, Funchal
- Puerto Rico : San Juan (USA)
- Russia : Kyzyl
- Republic of China : Gaoxiong
- Philippines : Bagio, Vigan, Puerto Princesa, Cebu
- France : Brewer
- Republic of Korea : Incheon, Seoul
- Japan : Naha, Tokyo, Hiroshima
- ↑ United States of America // Atlas of the World / Composition and Prepared for Publishing. PCO "Cartography" in 2009 ; rev D. V. Pozdniak. — M. : PCO "Cartography" : Onics, 2010. P. 168—169. — ISBN 978-5-85120-295-7 (Cartography). — ISBN 978- 5-488-02609-4 (Onics).
- ↑ Honolulu // Dictionary of geographical names of foreign countries / ed. A. M. Komkov. — 3rd edition, overwork and additional — M. : Nedra, 1986. P. 93.
- ↑ Honolulu // Military encyclopedia : [in 18 t.] / under rev. B. F. Novitsky ... [etc.]. — SPb. ; [M.] : Type. t-va I. D. Sytina, 1911—1915.
- ↑ Honolulu History — HelloHonolulu.com. Archived January 4, 2013.
- ↑ History — Honolulu
- ↑ Honolulu History, Hawaii | Travelgrove.com
- ↑ Kottek, M.; J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel. World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated // Meteorol. Z. : journal. — 2006. — Vol. 15, no. 3. — P. 259—263. — doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130.
- ↑ Weatherbase.com. Weatherbase.com. Case date: May 22, 2012. Archived February 26, 2013.
- ↑ Census Of Population And Housing (unavailable link). U.S. Census Bureau. Case date: May 7, 2011. Archived April 21, 2012.
- ↑ Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places Over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2009 Population: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009 (unavailable link). U.S. Census Bureau. Case date: May 7, 2011. Archived October 17, 2010.
- ↑ 1 2 Honolulu Economy. City-Data.com. Advameg Inc. (2009). Case date: January 26, 2011.
- ↑ "Contact Us. Archived February 8, 2015.." Mesa Air Group. Retrieved on February 23, 2010.
- ↑ Corporate Headquarters. Hawaiinair.com. Case date: May 20, 2009. Archived February 26, 2013.
- ↑ General Contact Information. Honolulu, HI, USA: Island Air. Case date: June 30, 2012. Archived February 26, 2013.
- ↑ "Locations. Archived May 22, 2009.." Aloha Air Cargo. Retrieved on May 21, 2009.
- ↑ "Honolulu CDP, HI Archived Copy dated February 18, 2008 on the Wayback Machine." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on May 21, 2009.
- ↑ "Aloha Airlines, Inc." BusinessWeek. Retrieved on May 21, 2009.
- ↑ "World Airline Directory." Flight International. May 16, 1981. 1452. "Head Office: Honolulu International Airport, Hawaii, USA."
- ↑ Gomes, Andrew Honolulu rents still 2nd priciest in U.S.. the.honoluluadvertiser.com. Honolulu, HI, USA: Honolulu Advertiser (March 24, 2010). Case date: July 14, 2012. Archived February 26, 2013.
- ↑ Welcome to the Bishop Museum. Bishopmuseum.org. Case date: May 22, 2012. Archived February 26, 2013.
- ↑ Pacific.bizjournals.com (not available link). Pacific.bizjournals.com (January 5, 2004). Case date: May 22, 2012. Archived February 26, 2013.
- ↑ Honolulu Marathon 2013 | Powered by EventsOnline.ca
- ↑ University of Hawaii at Manoa. Uhm.hawaii.edu (2 May 2012). Case date: May 22, 2012. Archived February 26, 2013.
- ↑ Miami tackles Pro Bowl (December 30, 2008). Case date: December 30, 2008.
- ↑ "Halawa CDP, Hawaii. Archived December 2, 2010.." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on May 21, 2009.
- ↑ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1617 18 19 20 21 Cities (unreachable link). Official Web Site for The City and County of Honolulu. Case date: October 18, 2010. Archived June 6, 2010.
- ↑ Hawaii's capital, Honolulu, became the sister city of Tuva Kyzyl. Regnum (March 30, 2004). Case date: June 20, 2011.
- Official Website